Free Cutting Steel
Unlike other steel groups, the cost of Free Cutting Steel used in fast machining is also very low. Due to its physical and chemical properties, it can be drilled, threaded and even used in turning and milling in automaton steel, which can be used in machining.
Free machining steels containing lead elements can be easily processed due to their chip removal feature. If there is 0.12% sulphur and low carbon in the composition of free machining steels, which are comfortable and easy to process, this group is called semi- Free Cutting Steel. These steels with their ability to remove chips constitute the steel group that can produce forged parts. Free Cutting Steels with high sulphur content are used in hot forging.
Free machining steel, which is used as a raw material in mass produced parts, is preferred in mass production due to the fact that it is economical and easy to process in drilling and turning, which is expressed as machining.
In the processing of this group of steels, many factors such as the cutting power of the machine, the temperature of the production area, the chip removal system are effective besides the elements contained in the material. Higher cutting speeds defined by short processing time can be applied in Free Cutting Steel used in the production.
Furthermore, in free machining steels, a long tool life may be ensured for the tool since the tool wear can be kept low. Thus, the tool cost is also reduced. In order for Free Cutting Steel to be well machined and formable, it should not have a very high strength.
The chipping and shaping properties of the materials used in the production can be determined by using different methods. The most important formable criterion in steels in this group are expressed as cutting force, chip formation together with the surface quality of the material.
The Free Cutting Steel used in the production of small parts contains carbon in ratios varying between 0.10% and 0.60%. It contains high amounts of sulphur elements compared to other steel groups in order to improve its machinability. Moreover, this group of steels also contain phosphorus element.
Carbon, which increases the strength and hardenability of steel, is the most important basic alloying element of free machining steel. Other elements in the steel increase the formability and chip removal features of the steel.
Free Cutting Steel with a wide range of uses is used in the automotive industry, the construction industry, the production of steel construction roofs, and the manufacture of machine parts. Steels in this group are raw materials preferred by those who make cost calculations.